2014新版八年级英语下册第1至第10单元知识点总结

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2014 新版八年级英语下册第 1-----第 10 单元知识点总结 Unit 1 What’s the matter? 一、基础知识 1. What’ s the matter? 怎么啦?出什么事情了? 【解析】matter/ ' mætə(r)) /n. 问题;事情 What’ s the matter with you?= What’s the trouble with you? = What’ s wrong with you? 你怎么了? 【注】 : matter 和 trouble 为名词, 其前可加 the 或形容词性物主代词,wrong 是 adj. 不能加 the 【用法】用于询问某人有什么病或某人遇到什么麻烦、问题其后跟询问对象时, 与介词 with 连用。

即: What’s the matter with sb.? = What’s your trouble? = What’s up? = What happens to sb.? — What’s the matter with you ? — I have a bad cold. 2. I had a cold. 我感冒了。

have a cold=catch a cold=have the flu 感冒 have a fever 发烧 have a cough 咳嗽 have a stomachache 胃疼,肚子疼 have a toothache 牙疼 have a headache 头疼 3. 身体部位+ache(疼痛)构成新的复合词 stomach+ache=stomachache head+ache=headache tooth+ache=toothache back+ache=backache 后背痛 4. much too+ 形容词,意为 太...... ,too much+名词,意为 很多,大量 。

5. enough【形容、副词】足够的/地,enough 放在名前后,形副后。

good enough 足够好,enough money=much money 6. lie down 躺下, lie 躺,躺着,过去式 lay; lie 说谎,过去式 l 7. maybe ―或许‖,常用于句首,表示可能性,后加句子。

Maybe you are right. may be,是情态动词+be 的结构,意为―可能,也许‖,后加名词、代词或形容词。

He may be angry. sound like+名词代词和从句:It sounds like you don’t know the truth. It sounds like a good idea. sound+形容词,―听起来,好像‖,The music sounds nice. 9. need 需要,实义动词 need+名词,需要某物; need to do sth. 需要做某事,主语通常是人,表示人主动的动作:You need to listen carefully during class. need doing sth. 主语通常是物,表示被动的动作:Your dirty clothes need washing. 10. get off (the bus) 下(公交车) get on 上车 11. agree 同意,赞同; agree with sth. 同意某事 如:I agree with that idea. agree to sb. 同意某人的意见 如:I agree to LiLei. 12. trouble 问题, 麻烦 ; be in trouble 遇到麻烦, make trouble 制造麻烦 , have trouble (in) doing sth. =have difficulties (in) doing sth 做...... 有麻烦。

13. right away=right now=at once,意为 马上 。

14. advice [ 不可数名词]劝告,建议,向…征求意见, give sb. advice on sth. 就某事给某人建议; advise [动词] advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 advise sb. doing sth. 【复习】exercise 练习、锻炼 当 exercise 意为―练习‖时,为可数名词 即可加 s 当 exercise 意为―锻炼‖时,为不可数名词 即不加 s 16. hurt 及物动词,使……疼痛,……受伤,He hurt his leg while exercising. 不及物动词,……(部位)疼。

His leg hurt badly. clean 18. hit 【动词】打扫,clean the classroom 打扫教室, 【形容词】 干净的 ,cleaner 意为 清洁工 。

(用手或器具)打;击打 The boy hit the dog with a stone. hit sb. on the head/ nose/ back 打某人的头、鼻子、后背,on 用在所打较硬的部位; hit sb. in the face/ eye/ stomach 打某人的脸、眼睛、肚子,in 用在所打较软的部位。

be used to sth./ doing sth. 习惯于、适应了……、做某事,强调状态;His grandpa was used to country life. Mary is not used to getting up early in the morning. get/ become used to sth./ doing sth. ―变得习惯,逐渐适应……‖强调过程、动作: It’s difficult for one to get used to another country’s habit. 1

20. 【复习】free [形容词]空闲的 free time;免费的 the drink is for free;自由的 I want to become a free bird. free【动词】使……解脱,得到自由:He could not free his arm. run out 用完,用尽 When his water run out, he knew that he would have to do something to save his own life. 物 sth. run out. 某物用尽了。

人 sb. run out of sth. 人用尽了某物。

He run out of all his money last night. 22. risk (sb.) to do sth. 冒险去做某事 take a risk=take risks 冒险 23. the importance of (doing) sth. (做)某事的重要性 We students should know the importance of (learning) English. importance n. 重要(性) , important adj. 重要的,unimportant decision 【名词】决定;抉择; make a decision decide to do sth. 。

做决定 ; make a decision to do sth.= adj. 不重要的 25. be in the control of …掌管,管理 The headmaster is in the control of this new school. be out of control 无法控制,无法管理 be under control 被控制住,在控制之中 26. 【复习】mind 意为 介意 ,mind doing sth. 介意做某事 Would you mind my opening the window? 27. give up (doing) sth. 放弃(做)某事,give up (playing) computer games ; , give up 后可接名词、代词和动词 ing 形式,也可不接,如: Never give up easily. 二、重点语法 【反身代词】英语有八个反身代词,在使用时应注意和它所指的相应的对象在人称、性别、数上保持一致。

数 人称 单数 复数 第一人称 myself ourselves 第二人称 yourself yourselves 第三人称 himself herself itself themselves 【用法】 1. 可用作宾语,指的是宾语和主语表示同一个或同一些的人或事物。

如:Maria bought herself a scarf. We must look after ourselves very well. 2. 可用作表语,指的是表语和主语表示同一个或同一些人或事物。

如: She isn’t quite herself today. 3. 可用作主语或宾语的同位语,常用来加强语气。

如:She herself will fly to London tomorrow. I met the writer himself last week. 4. 用在某些固定短语当中。

look after oneself / take care of oneself 照顾自己 teach oneself sth./ learn sth. by oneself 自学 enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快 help oneself to sth 请自用……(随便吃/喝些……). say to oneself 自言自语 leave sb. by oneself 把某人单独留下 buy oneself sth. 给自己买……东西 introduce oneself 介绍……自己 hurt oneself 摔伤自己 【提醒】 1. 反身代词不能单独做主语,但可以做主语的同位语,起强调作用。

如:我自己能完成作业。

(误)Myself can finish my homework. ( 正) I myself can finish my homework. / I can finish my homework myself. 2. 反身代词表示―某人自己‖不能表示― 某人的东西‖,因为它没有所有格的形式。

表达 ―某人自己的(东西)‖ 时, 须要用 one’s own. 如:我用我自己的蜡笔画画。

(误)I’m drawing with myself crayons. Unit 2 I’ll help to clean up the city parks 一、基本知识点 1. sick 生病的,有病的;可在句中作表语 Mary could not come because she is sick. 也可作定语 a sick child 【区别 ill】 ill 与 sick 同义;但是只在句中做表语,不做定语。

Mary could not come because she is ill. 2. cheer (sb.) up(让某人)变得高兴;振奋起来 The good news cheered up everyone in our class. 2 ( 正) I’m drawing with my own crayons.

3. give out 分发;散发,相当于 hand out,The teacher is giving out/ handing out the test papers. give sth. out to sb. 意为 把某物分发给某人 。

4. volunteer 【名词】志愿者 【动词】义务做,自愿做(某事)volunteer to do sth. 自愿做某事 , The girls could volunteer in an after-school study program. 5. used to do sth. 过去/曾经(常)做某事,表示过去的习惯、动作或状态,并强调现在已经不再存在或发生。

There used to be a cinema here. 这里曾有一个照相机。

They told me stories about the past and how things used to be. 他们告诉我关于这里过去的故事。

6. alone 【形容词】独自一人的,无感情色彩:The musician enjoyed living alone and writing songs himself. lonely (感到)孤独寂寞的,带有很强的感情色彩,可做表语或定语。

The lonely boy is not lonely now. 7. care for sb./sth. 照顾;照料…… care 【名词】小心,关心 take care of=look after →【动词】care about sb./sth. 关心,在意某人/事 →【形容词】careful 仔细的 / careless 粗心的 →【副词】carefully 仔细地 8. such ―这样的,这种,如此‖,用于修饰名词 such+ a/ an+形容词+单数名词:such a good day 多么美好的一天 /such an exciting match 多么 精彩的比赛 such+形容词+复数名词/不可数名词:such important decisions 多么重要的建议 such delicious food 多么美味 的食物 如果名词前被 many, much, few, little 修饰时,只能用 so,而不用 such:so many sick children/ so little time 9. try out for…参加…选拔,争取成为…Thirty football players tr out for the Best Player of the year. try out 试用,试验 10. journey 【名词】 (尤指长途)旅行,行程;trip【名词】多指短途旅行; travel【名词、动词】travel around the world →【名词】traveler 旅行者 11. 【复习】be busy with sth. 忙于(做)什么事情 be busy doing sth. 12. 【复习】try doing sth. 试着去做某事 try to do sth. 尽力去做某事 担心某人、某事 的努力去做某事 13. 【复习】be worr about sb./ sth. = worry about sb./ sth. 14. raise money 集资,筹钱;raise money for…为……筹钱 raise【动词】举起;提高;募集 15. keep【动词】keep+名词,保留(某物) ;keep+形容词,保持 16. 【形容词】broken 破损的,出毛病的;blind 瞎的,失明的;deaf 聋的;disabled 有残疾的,丧失能力的;在句中 做定语和表语。

make it possible (for sb.) to do sth. 使(某人)做某事成为可能, You helped to make it possible for me to have Lucky. make it +形容词(+for sb.) to do sth. 使(某人)做某事成为…; think/find it +形容词 to do sth. 18. make a difference to…对……有影响;对……有作用,difference 前可以用 no, any, some, much 等修饰,如 The rain made no difference to the game. Hard-working makes much difference to study. 19. difficulty【可数/不可数】表示抽象意义的―困难‖时为不可数;表示具体的―难题、难事‖时为可数; have difficulty (in) doing sth.= have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难 20. train【动词】训练,trained 为过去分词,可做定语,意为―受过训练的‖a trained dog 21. be excited about sth. 对某事感到兴奋 ,Everyone is excited about the good news. 【复习】excited 意为 兴奋的,修饰人;exciting 意为 令人兴奋/激动的,修饰物。

22. order 【名词】命令,指示;顺序,次序【动词】订购;点(菜)follow the order 。

23. change【动词】变化,改变 It’s hard for a person to change his life(style). 【名词】变化;零钱 change A for B 用 A 换成 B:When you travel in China, remember to change US dollars for RMB. 第 3 页 共 3 页 忙于(做)什么事情 try one’s best (to do sth.) 尽某人最大

repair 【动词】修理,修补; fix【动词】安装;使固定 【fix up 修理=repair 】 Unit3 Could you please clean your room? Peter ,could you please take out the trash? 彼得,你能把垃圾倒了吗? Could you please do sth ?请你 (做) ...... 好吗? 用于提出请求, 希望得到对方的肯定回答, 说话的语气比较客气委婉。

Could 不是 can 的过去式,是委婉、礼貌的说法。

回答用 can. 【常用答语】肯定回答:Sure./ Of course./ Certainly./No problem. 2、take out 取出(v+ adv) 否定回答: Sorry , I can’t 【注】: 跟代词做宾语,代词放中间;跟名词做宾语,可放在中间,也可放在后边 His teeth hurt badly. The dentist take them out . 【短语】take out the trash 倒垃圾 take a walk 散步 take away 拿走,取走 take back 收回 take place 发生 take off 脱下; 起飞 3. Can you do the dishes. ?那你可以洗盘子吗? do the dishes 洗碗 【结构 1】do the +名词: 【结构 2】do the +动词-ing 【结构 3】do one’s + 名词 do the dishes/ laundry 洗餐具/衣服 do the cleaning 打扫卫生 do one’s housework/ homework 做家务/家庭作业 【结构 4】do some +动词-ing do some reading/ shopping 读写书/购物 Could I at least finish watching this show? 至少让我看完这个节目可以吗? 1】Could I do a sth? 我可以做...... 吗? 用于表达请求,语气比较委婉。

Could I go out with my classmate this weekend? 2】at least 至少,多指数量或程度上的最低限度。

(反) at most 至少,不超过 Now all of us exercise at least an hour a day and outside school. 3】finish v 结束;完成 finish doing sth 做完某事 — Can you finish __reading__ these books before 10 o'clock? — Yes, I can. 5、I think two hours of TV is enough for you! 我觉得你看两个小时的电视已经足够了。

1】two hours of TV 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

How time is flies! Three years __is_____(be) really a short time. 作 形 容 【解析 2】enough 词 作 副词 足够的,充分的(在句中作定语或表语) I don’t have enough money with me. 足够;充分(放在形容词;副词后)The river is deep enough for swimming. 【记】 Mr. Smith has enough money ,but he isn’t kind enough to help others. 【注意】enough 修饰名词时,置于名词前;修饰形容词时,置于形容词之后。

6、Could you take out the rubbish,fold the clothes and do the dishes? 你能把垃圾倒了。

把衣服叠好,再把碗洗了吗? 【解析】take out 拿出;取出 take 的用法: 拿;取 吃;喝;服用 take 乘(车;船等) 第 4 页 共 4 页 Please take some books to the classroom. Take this medicine three times a day.

They usually take the bus to work. 花费(时间;金钱) 【拓展】take 构成的短语: take a walk 去散步 take a rest 休息 take care of 照顾 take off 脱下;起飞 take one’s time 不急;慢慢来 take one’s temperature 量体温 7. The minute I sat down in front of the TV , my mom came over . 我刚坐在电视机前面,我妈妈就过来了。

【解析 1】the minute = as soon as ―一...... 就......‖ Please write to me the minute you get there. 【解析 2】 in front of 指在物体外部的前面 in front of There is a bike in front of the classroom. 【辨析】 in the front of 指在物体内部的前面 take up 占据 take down 拿下 It takes me two hours to do my homework every day. Our teacher is standing in the front of the classroom 【记】 The driver sat _____in the front of___________ the car. The policeman stood ___in front of________ the car. 【注意】有 the 无 the 区别大: at table 吃饭;进餐 at the tabel 在桌边 【解析 3】come over 过来 【拓展】 come 短语: come across (偶然)发现 come true 实现 come in/into 进入, 进来 come back 回来 come up with 想出 come from=be from 来自, 出生于 come along 走吧, 过来, 快点 in hospital 住院 in the hospital 在医院(不一定看病) come down 下来 come on 赶快, 加油 come and go 来来去去 come up 上来 come out 出来,(花)开,(照片)冲洗出来 7. You watch TV all the time and never help out around the house! 你总是看电视,从不帮忙做家务! all the time = always 一直;总是 8. I’m just as tired as you are! 我和你一样累! 【解析】as...as ... 和...... 一样...... 9. For one week , she did not do any housework and neither did I. 一周的时间,她不做任何家务,我也不做。

【解析】neither +助动词/系动词/情态动词 +主语 ⑴ neither 两者都不 ―某人(主语) 也不‖ neither …nor… 既不…也不…, 连接两个词做主语,谓语动词由后一个主语确定 Neither Tom nor Jim is a student ⑵ 表达―…也不……‖ 则用 ―Neither /Nor + be / V 助 / V 情 + 主‖ —The first one wasn’t bad. — Neither was the second. 10. The next day , my mom came home from work to find the house clean and tidy. 第二天,妈妈下班回到家后发现房间很干净、整洁。

【解析】find +宾语+宾语补足语 【注】find → found →found v 寻找 (1) find sb. doing sth 发现某人做某事 (2) find it + adj. + to do sth 发现做某事很…… ◆find it difficult/ hard to do sth 发现做某事很困难 She found _it__ hard to finish the work by herself. 11. She asked in surprise. 她吃惊地问道。

第 5 页 共 5 页

【解析】in surprise 惊奇地;吃惊地 surprise v 使吃惊→surprising adj. 令人吃惊的 →surprised adj. 吃惊的 to one’s surprise 使某人吃惊的是 in surprise 吃惊地 be surprised at 对……感到吃惊 To my surprise_( 使我吃惊的是) ,he got the first prize in the exam. 12. ― I’m do sorry, Mom. I finish understand that we need to share the housework to have a clean and comfortable home.‖ I repl. ―对不起,妈妈。

我终于理解为了拥有一个干净、舒适的家我们需要共同来分担家务。

‖ 我回答说。

【解析 1】need v 需要 用于肯定句,是实义动词。

(1)人做主语,sb. need to do sth 某人需要做某事 (2)物做主语,sth need doing sth= sth need to be done ①Students need ___to have_______(have) a good rest in studying. ②The watch needs__mending___(mend). 用于否定句或疑问句,是情态动词 (1)needn’t = don’t have to 没有必要 (2)need ,must 引导的一般疑问句,肯定会的用 must, 否定回答用 needn’t — Must I go there now? — Yes ,you must/No, you needn’t 【解析 2】share 分享;共用 share sth 分享或共用某物 share sth with sb. 与某人分享某物 (All his friends __Shared___ his happiness when he won the match. 13.Could I hang out with my friends after the movie? 看完电影后我能和朋友们一起闲逛吗? 【解析】hang out 闲逛 hang up 把...... 悬挂/挂起 14. Could you please pass me the salt?你能把盐递给我吗? 【解析】pass ⑴v 给;递;走过;通过 pass sb.sth 把某物递给某 Please pass the paper on to the other students. ⑵ v 通过;路过 I pass your home. ⑶ v 通过(考试) ;及格 Tom can pass his math exam. 15. Could I borrow that book?我能借下你那本书看吗、 Could you lend me some money?你能借我一些钱吗? 【解析】borrow /lend/keep (1)borrow 借入 , 与 from 连用,尤指主语―【借进来‖】 borrow sth from sb. 从某人那里借某物 You can borrow the book from the library. (2)lend 借出 ,与 to 搭配 【指借出去】 lend sb sth=lend sth to sb 把某物借给某人 He doesn’t want to lend his book to others. (3)keep 保留,保存(延续动词,可以与表示一段时间的状语连用) 【指借一段时间】 【记】 I want to __borrow__ a bike from my friend but he didn’t _lend___ it to me, because Tom had _kept____ it for two days. 16. I cut my finger and I’m trying not to get it wet. 我的手指割伤了,伤口不能弄湿。

【解析】try (not) to do sth 努力(不)做某事。

try v 试图,设法,努力 【拓展】 (1)try on 试穿 (2) try to do sth 努力做某事 【侧重尽力做】 (3) try doing sth 试图做某事 【侧重尝试做】 (4)try one’s best to do sth= do one’s best to do sth 尽某人最大努力做某事 17. I hate to do chores. 我讨厌做家务。

hate to do sth 讨厌做某事, 表示某次具体行为或动作。

I hate to trouble him. Pass on 传递 第 6 页 共 6 页

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